Golf Course Lighting Design and Construction
The design requirements for golf course lighting meet the requirements of golf course competitions. Lighting design indicators mainly include: horizontal illuminance, vertical illuminance, illuminance uniformity, light source color temperature and Color index, glare index, shadow. These indicators directly affect the quality of lighting used for playing at night. Design a reasonable and targeted lighting stadium, first of all, conduct on-site investigation and research on the terrain, topography, drop, vegetation, etc. of the stadium; For the newly built golf course, detailed analysis shall be carried out on the modeling map, Contour line map, sprinkler map, etc., and the final scheme shall be formulated jointly with the owner.
Specific requirements for lighting design of golf courses: 1. The golf course should have sufficient illumination. Able to enable the batter to clearly see the flying height, direction, and landing point of the ball with their line of sight; Able to clearly see the undulating terrain of the fairway within the stadium.
2. The arrangement of lamp poles and lamps should also consider sufficient horizontal illumination and uniformity. Try to minimize excessive changes in brightness.
3. Reduce and control glare. The selection and installation of lighting fixtures should consider the projection direction, so that the lighting fixtures and projection direction on the main channel follow the direction of the batter’s line of sight to avoid strong direct glare in the opposite direction. The lighting fixtures on adjacent channels should prevent their direct light from becoming direct glare to the other party. 4. The hitting area adopts wide light distribution lamps to provide sufficient diffused light, while also considering scattered installation of lamps to reduce or avoid shadows generated by the batter in the hitting area.
Building lighting is a supporting facility for a golf course. Do not damage the original landscape of the course by constructing a lighting course. Therefore, when designing a lighting court, full consideration should be given to the impact of lighting facilities on the court landscape, such as the number of light poles, the placement position of light poles, and the placement position of power distribution boxes. The principles of appropriate number of poles, concealed placement, and safe placement should be followed.
The following are Several factors that should be paid special attention to in the construction of golf course
1、 Firstly, lighting standards should be established with the owner
The usually established range includes T-table, fairway, green, and ensuring sufficient illumination and uniformity. The illumination deviation between each other should not be too large. Generally, the ratio should be 1:0.6:1.6, and the illumination should be appropriately strengthened in the IP point area. At the same time, there should be sufficient vertical illumination to ensure that the flight trajectory of the ball can be clearly seen. The adopted indicator is that the height at 30cm parallel to the fairway should be greater than 20Lux, And also consider lighting for the golf lane, sandbox, and landscape.
2、 To minimize the impact of light poles on the stadium landscape and playing, the following principles should be followed when laying poles
1. The consideration of T-table layout is generally behind the T-table, which can simultaneously play with both left and right hands; When it is not suitable to lay poles behind the T-stand, the forehand (i.e. left hand) pole position can be considered, with the center of the T-stand as the coordinate point 0. The pole laying area is within 60 ° of the (+, -) area, as shown in the following figure. Regardless of the situation, the T-stand edge of the lamp pole cannot be less than 5m (except in special circumstances).
2. The placement of poles in the fairway area should keep the light poles as far away from the centerline of the fairway as possible, usually behind the fairway or outside the OB stakes, to avoid any impact on playing the ball as much as possible. The practice of reducing the size of the fairway and achieving so-called energy-saving or cost reduction is extremely wrong.
3. Attention should also be paid to the placement of poles in the green area, and the principle of symmetrical placement should be followed as much as possible to reduce the generation of shadows. A special reminder is that if the light pole is too close to the green, it will seriously affect playing and the landscape. If the player accidentally targets the light pole, the impact will be incalculable. The general requirement is that the distance between the lamp pole and the edge of the green should not be less than 30m, and the illumination in the shadow should be greater than 100Lux.
3、 Control of voltage drop
Due to the large area of the stadium, in order to ensure the quality of power supply and the effectiveness of lighting, it is necessary to fully consider voltage drop and energy loss. It is best to use 380V powered lamps, which have a much better voltage drop compared to 220V lamps. At the same time, calculate the line voltage loss and increase the cable cross-section compensation plan to solve the power supply problem.
4、 Lightning protection grounding
Since the golf course is hilly, open and lightning prone, the lightning protection measures must be strictly required. The lamp pole is used as the Lightning rod, the lamp pole foundation is used as the grounding body, and the grounding electrode is added. At the same time, BV wire is used to connect the lamp pole ring network; The grounding resistance should not exceed 10 ohms. The grounding device should be shared with electrical equipment and other grounding devices. The lightning protection grounding device should be connected to buried metal.
5、 Selection of lighting fixtures
Due to the frequent occurrence of golf balls hitting lighting fixtures, the anti strike ability of lamps should be selected to emphasize the high pressure cast aluminum shell. At the same time, considering the maintenance and other reasons, it is better to use the back opening type to replace the light source, because people usually stand on the back of the lamp when climbing the lamp pole. If it is necessary to open the lamp glass to replace the light source, it will be inconvenient to operate and will also reduce the Factor of safety.
6、 Selection of distribution box
Due to the strong acidity and alkalinity of the courts, it is recommended to use stainless steel boxes for their intelligence. When designing, the size of the box should not be too large. It is best to use a hanging pole installation for the light pole box, which has stronger corrosion resistance. For the convenience of maintenance, the height of the hanging box should not be too high.
7、 How to achieve the best results
In addition to meeting certain lighting standards, the lighting field also has two crucial indicators that play a crucial role in the lighting effect, namely the color temperature and color rendering of the lighting fixtures. Specifically, what is color temperature and color rendering? What is the best value to achieve? It is necessary to first explain these two concepts here. Simply put, a color greenhouse is represented by an absolute temperature K (Kelvin), which heats a standard blackbody (such as black iron). As the temperature increases, the color of the iron gradually changes. By utilizing the characteristics of this color change and referring to the color of a light source that is the same as that of a blackbody at a certain temperature, we change the absolute temperature of the blackbody at that time to the color temperature of the light source, Abbreviated as color temperature. Color rendering refers to the degree to which a light source presents the color of an object, which means that the color under sunlight is 100%, and when illuminated by a lamp, it can be restored to a percentage of the color under sunlight.
What is the best specific value? There are different opinions on color temperature, and there are different opinions on the effect. We believe that meeting the needs of homeowners or meeting the needs of most players is the most important, but there is a slight sun light color temperature around 5500K. Therefore, we recommend that homeowners try to restore the effect to daytime at night, which will be accepted by more players, including the higher the color shape, the better.
8、 Construction of Golf Lighting Course
The golf lighting course project is a simple electromechanical installation project, characterized by a wide range of work areas, complex underground pipelines, clear prohibited areas, and high-altitude operations. Before construction, drawings should be reviewed and technical disclosure should be conducted with the owner. Other construction processes and simple construction techniques will not be discussed here. The following are explanations for several construction projects that are prone to quality problems based on the characteristics of the stadium and the project. The excavation of lamp pole foundation should consider the excavation slope and be determined based on physical and mechanical factors such as internal friction angle, cohesion, humidity, and bulk density of the soil. If the soil quality of the foundation is found to be inconsistent with the design, it needs to be studied and treated by relevant personnel. During the construction process, the condition of the foundation trench or excavation slope should be checked daily, and support preparations should be made according to the soil conditions to prevent collapse. If the bottom elevation of the foundation pit is below the groundwater level, groundwater will continuously seep into the pit, or if the excavation is carried out during the rainy season, rainwater will also enter the pit. If groundwater and rainwater flow into the pit, they will not be discharged. Not only will it worsen the construction conditions, bring hardship to the construction, and guarantee the quality of the project, but sometimes it can also cause serious collapse and accidents such as wetting or swelling of special foundation soil.
Therefore, drainage preparations should be made before earthwork excavation to ensure timely drainage and keep the soil dry during excavation. During foundation excavation, all soft mud, soft soil, and loose soil should be excavated, and then plain soil should be backfilled and compacted in layers. According to the design cross-section and elevation, in addition to leaving sufficient backfill soil, excess soil should be transported to the soil use area or spoil ground in one go to avoid secondary transportation. When making the steel precision cage for the lamp pole foundation, determine the steel grade, diameter, number of pieces, and spacing of the steel precision according to the design drawings, especially determine the position of the negative reinforcement and the connection of the grounding electrode. Steel reinforcement engineering belongs to concealed engineering. Before pouring concrete, the steel reinforcement and embedded parts should be inspected and recorded as concealed engineering.
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